SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
|3 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Unaudited Interim Financial Statements and Basis of Presentation
Unaudited Interim Financial Statements and Basis of Presentation
We prepare our interim financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and pursuant to the requirements for reporting on Form 10-Q and Articles 6, 10 and 12 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, we have not included in this quarterly report all of the information and notes required by GAAP for annual financial statements. The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include our accounts and those of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation S-X, we do not consolidate portfolio company investments. Under the investment company rules and regulations pursuant to the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Audit and Accounting Guide for Investment Companies, codified in ASC 946, we are precluded from consolidating any entity other than another investment company, except that ASC 946 provides for the consolidation of a controlled operating company that provides substantially all of its services to the investment company or its consolidated subsidiaries. In our opinion, all adjustments, consisting solely of normal recurring accruals, necessary for the fair statement of financial statements for the interim periods have been included. The results of operations for the three months ended December 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of results that ultimately may be achieved for the fiscal year endingSeptember 30, 2023 or any future interim periods. The interim financial statements and notes thereto should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, as filed with the SEC on November 14, 2022.
|Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
Preparing financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and these Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
|Investment Valuation Policy
Investment Valuation Policy
We record our investments at fair value in accordance with the FASB ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”) and the 1940 Act. Investment transactions are recorded on the trade date. Realized gains or losses are generally measured by the difference between the net proceeds from the repayment or sale and the cost basis of the investment, without regard to unrealized appreciation or depreciation previously recognized, and include investments charged off during the period, net of recoveries. Unrealized appreciation or depreciation primarily reflects the change in investment fair values, including the reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation when gains or losses are realized.
In December 2020, the SEC adopted Rule 2a-5 under the 1940 Act, which permits a BDC’s board of directors to designate its investment adviser as a valuation designee (the “Valuation Designee”) to perform fair value determinations for its investment portfolio, subject to the active oversight of such board. Our board of directors (the “Board of Directors”) has approved investment valuation policies and procedures pursuant to Rule 2a-5 (the “Policy”) and, in July 2022, designated the Adviser to serve as the Board of Directors’ Valuation Designee.
In accordance with the 1940 Act, our Board of Directors has the ultimate responsibility for reviewing and determining, in good faith, the fair value of our investments for which market quotations are not readily available based on our Policy and for overseeing the Valuation Designee. Such review and oversight includes receiving written fair value determinations and supporting materials provided by the Valuation Designee, in coordination with the Administrator and with the oversight by the Company’s chief valuation officer (collectively, the “Valuation Team”). The Valuation Committee of our Board of Directors (comprised entirely of independent directors) meets to review the valuation determinations and supporting materials, discusses the information provided by the Valuation Team, determines whether the Valuation Team has followed the Policy, and reviews other facts and circumstances, including current valuation risks, conflicts of interest, material valuation matters, appropriateness of valuation methodologies, back-testing results, price challenges/overrides, and ongoing monitoring and oversight of pricing services. After the Valuation Committee concludes its meeting, it and the chief valuation officer, representing the Valuation Designee, present the Valuation Committee’s findings on the Valuation Designee's recommendations to the entire Board of Directors so that the full Board of Directors may review and approve in good faith the Valuation Designee’s determined fair values of such investments in accordance with the Policy.
There is no single standard for determining fair value (especially for privately-held businesses), as fair value depends upon the specific facts and circumstances of each individual investment. In determining the fair value of our investments, the Valuation Team, led by the chief valuation officer, uses the Policy, and each quarter the Valuation Committee and Board of Directors review the Policy to determine if changes thereto are advisable and whether the Valuation Team has applied the Policy consistently.
Use of Third Party Valuation Firms
The Valuation Team engages third party valuation firms to provide independent assessments of fair value of certain of our investments.
ICE Data Pricing and Reference Data, LLC (“ICE”), a valuation specialist, generally provides estimates of fair value on our proprietary debt investments. The Valuation Team generally assigns ICE’s estimates of fair value to our debt investments where we do not have the ability to effectuate a sale of the applicable portfolio company. The Valuation Team
corroborates ICE’s estimates of fair value using one or more of the valuation techniques discussed below. The Valuation Team’s estimate of value on a specific debt investment may significantly differ from ICE’s. When this occurs, our Valuation Committee and Board of Directors review whether the Valuation Team has followed the Policy and whether the Valuation Team’s recommended fair value is reasonable in light of the Policy and other facts and circumstances before determining fair value.
We may engage other independent valuation firms to provide earnings multiple ranges, as well as other information, and evaluate such information for incorporation into the total enterprise value (“TEV”) of certain of our investments. Generally, at least once per year, we engage an independent valuation firm to value or review the valuation of each of our significant equity investments, which includes providing the information noted above. The Valuation Team evaluates such information for incorporation into our TEV, including review of all inputs provided by the independent valuation firm. The Valuation Team then makes a recommendation to our Valuation Committee and Board of Directors as to the fair value. Our Board of Directors reviews the recommended fair value, and whether it is reasonable in light of the Policy, and other relevant facts and circumstances, as necessary, before determining fair value.
In accordance with ASC 820, the Valuation Team uses the following techniques when valuing our investment portfolio:
•Total Enterprise Value — In determining the fair value using a TEV, the Valuation Team first calculates the TEV of the portfolio company by incorporating some or all of the following factors: the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and other specific portfolio company attributes; the earnings of the portfolio company (the trailing or projected twelve month revenue or EBITDA); EBITDA multiples obtained from our indexing methodology whereby the original transaction EBITDA multiple at the time of our closing is indexed to a general subset of comparable disclosed transactions and EBITDA multiples from recent sales to third parties of similar securities in similar industries; a comparison to publicly traded securities in similar industries; and other pertinent factors. The Valuation Team generally reviews industry statistics and may use outside experts when gathering this information. Once the TEV is determined for a portfolio company, the Valuation Team generally allocates the TEV to the portfolio company’s securities based on the facts and circumstances of the securities, which typically results in the allocation of fair value to securities based on the order of their relative priority in the capital structure. Generally, the Valuation Team uses TEV to value our equity investments and, in the circumstances where we have the ability to effectuate a sale of a portfolio company, our debt investments.
TEV is primarily calculated using EBITDA and EBITDA multiples; however, TEV may also be calculated using revenue and revenue multiples or a discounted cash flow (“DCF”) analysis whereby future expected cash flows of the portfolio company are discounted to determine a net present value using estimated risk-adjusted discount rates, which incorporate adjustments for nonperformance and liquidity risks. Generally, the Valuation Team uses a DCF analysis to calculate TEV to corroborate estimates of value for our equity investments where we do not have the ability to effectuate a sale of a portfolio company or for debt of credit impaired portfolio companies.
•Yield Analysis — The Valuation Team generally determines the fair value of our debt investments for which we do not have the ability to effectuate a sale of the applicable portfolio company using the yield analysis, which includes a DCF calculation and assumptions that the Valuation Team believes market participants would use, including, estimated remaining life, current market yield, current leverage, and interest rate spreads. This technique develops a modified discount rate that incorporates risk premiums including increased probability of default, increased loss upon default and increased liquidity risk. Generally, the Valuation Team uses the yield analysis to corroborate both estimates of value provided by ICE and market quotes.
•Market Quotes — For our investments for which a limited market exists, we generally base fair value on readily available and reliable market quotations which are corroborated by the Valuation Team (generally by using the yield analysis described above). In addition, the Valuation Team assesses trading activity for similar investments and evaluates variances in quotations and other market insights to determine if any available quoted prices are reliable. Typically, the Valuation Team uses the lower indicative bid price (“IBP”) in the bid-to-ask price range obtained from the respective originating syndication agent’s trading desk on or near the valuation date. The Valuation Team may take further steps to consider additional information to validate that price in accordance with the Policy. For securities that are publicly traded, we generally base fair value on the closing market price of the securities we hold as of the reporting date. For restricted securities that are publicly traded, we generally base fair
value on the closing market price of the securities we hold as of the reporting date less a discount for the restriction, which includes consideration of the nature and term to expiration of the restriction.
•Investments in Funds — For equity investments in other funds for which we cannot effectuate a sale of the fund, the Valuation Team generally determines the fair value of our invested capital at the net asset value (“NAV”) provided by the fund. Any invested capital that is not yet reflected in the NAV provided by the fund is valued at par value. The Valuation Team may also determine fair value of our investments in other investment funds based on the capital accounts of the underlying entity.
In addition to the valuation techniques listed above, the Valuation Team may also consider other factors when determining the fair value of our investments, including: the nature and realizable value of the collateral, including external parties’ guaranties, any relevant offers or letters of intent to acquire the portfolio company, timing of expected loan repayments, and the markets in which the portfolio company operates.
Fair value measurements of our investments may involve subjective judgments and estimates and due to the uncertainty inherent in valuing these securities, the determinations of fair value may fluctuate from period to period and may differ materially from the values that could be obtained if a ready market for these securities existed. Our NAV could be materially affected if the determinations regarding the fair value of our investments are materially different from the values that we ultimately realize upon our disposal of such securities. Additionally, changes in the market environment and other events that may occur over the life of the investment may cause the gains or losses ultimately realized on these investments to be different than the valuations currently assigned. Further, such investments are generally subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or otherwise are less liquid than publicly traded securities. If we were required to liquidate a portfolio investment in a forced or liquidation sale, we could realize significantly less than the value at which it is recorded.
Interest Income Recognition
Interest income, including the amortization of premiums, acquisition costs and amendment fees, the accretion of original issue discounts (“OID”), and paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest, is recorded on the accrual basis to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected. Generally, when a loan becomes 90 days or more past due or if our qualitative assessment indicates that the debtor is unable to service its debt or other obligations, we will place the loan on non-accrual status and cease recognizing interest income on that loan for financial reporting purposes until the borrower has demonstrated the ability and intent to pay contractual amounts due. However, we remain contractually entitled to this interest. Interest payments received on non-accrual loans may be recognized as income or applied to the cost basis depending upon management’s judgment. Generally, non-accrual loans are restored to accrual status when past due principal and interest are paid and, in management’s judgment, are likely to remain current, or due to a restructuring such that the interest income is deemed to be collectible. As of December 31, 2022, loans to Edge Adhesives Holdings, Inc. were on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of $6.1 million, or 1.1% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio, and an aggregate fair value of $2.5 million, or 0.4% of the fair value of all debt investments in our portfolio. There were no loans on non-accrual status as of September 30, 2022.
We currently hold, and we expect to hold in the future, some loans in our portfolio that contain OID or PIK provisions. We recognize OID for loans originally issued at discounts and recognize the income over the life of the obligation based on an effective yield calculation. PIK interest, computed at the contractual rate specified in a loan agreement, is added to the principal balance of a loan and recorded as income over the life of the obligation. Thus, the actual collection of PIK income may be deferred until the time of debt principal repayment. To maintain our ability to be taxed as a RIC, we may need to pay out both OID and PIK non-cash income amounts in the form of distributions, even though we have not yet collected the cash on either.
As of each of December 31, 2022 and September 30, 2022, we held four OID loans, primarily from the syndicated loans in our portfolio. We recorded OID income of $49 thousand and $0.1 million during the three months ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The unamortized balance of OID investments as of each of December 31, 2022 and September 30, 2022 totaled $0.9 million. As of each of December 31, 2022 and September 30, 2022, we had six investments which had a PIK interest component. We recorded PIK interest income of $1.0 million and $1.1 million during
the three months ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. We collected $0.4 million and $12 thousand in PIK interest in cash during the three months ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Success Fee Income Recognition
We record success fees as income when earned, which often occurs upon receipt of cash. Success fees are generally contractually due upon a change of control in a portfolio company, typically resulting from an exit or sale, and are non-recurring.
Dividend Income RecognitionWe accrue dividend income on preferred and common equity securities to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected and if we have the option to collect such amounts in cash or other consideration.
|Related Party Fees
Related Party Fees
We are party to the Advisory Agreement with the Adviser, which is owned and controlled by our chairman and chief executive officer. In accordance with the Advisory Agreement, we pay the Adviser fees as compensation for its services, consisting of a base management fee and an incentive fee. Additionally, we pay the Adviser a loan servicing fee as compensation for its services as servicer under the terms of our revolving credit facility with KeyBank National Association (“KeyBank”), as administrative agent, lead arranger and lender (as amended and/or restated from time to time, our “Credit Facility”). These fees are accrued at the end of the quarter when the services are performed and generally paid the following quarter.We are also party to the Administration Agreement with the Administrator, which is owned and controlled by our chairman and chief executive officer, whereby we pay separately for administrative services.